Average (0 Rates)
Sign in to rate!
Click here to see the meta data of this asset.

FASD: Assessment and diagnosis

Key points

  • The diagnosis of FASD is complex and requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary assessment.
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Canadian Guidelines for Diagnosis are the Canadian standard for diagnosing FASD. 
  • FASD diagnosis involves:
    • a physical examination
    • a dysmorphology assessment
    • a neurobehavioural assessment
    • prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) confirmation (a diagnosis of FAS can be made without confirmation of PAE).

Diagnostic criteria

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Canadian Guidelines for Diagnosis lists three FASD-related diagnoses:

  • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  • partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS)
  • alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND).

FAS is the only FASD-related diagnosis included in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes proposed criteria for neurodevelopmental disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE) under "Conditions for Further Study."

Physical examination and differential diagnosis

The general physical examination includes:

  • ruling out other potential causes of symptoms  
  • appropriate measurements of growth (height and weight) and occipital-frontal circumference
  • assessment of characteristic facial and other physical features
  • documentation of anomalies (e.g., cleft palate, congenital heart defects, epicanthic folds, high arched palate, poorly aligned or abnormal teeth, hypertelorism, micrognathia, abnormal hair patterning, abnormal palmar creases, skin lesions).

Other conditions that resemble FASD

There are other genetic disorders and multifactorial disorders that can lead to features that mimic those observed in among individuals with FAS and pFAS. These disorders include:

  • Aarskog syndrome
  • Bracjman-deLange or Cornelia deLange syndrome
  • Dubowitz syndrome
  • fetal anticonvulsant syndrome (includes fetal hydantoin and fetal valproate syndromes)
  • maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) fetal effects
  • Noonan syndrome
  • toluene embryopathy
  • Williams syndrome
  • other chromosome deletion and duplication syndromes.

Measurement of growth

The examination determines the presence of prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, defined as height and weigh at or below the tenth percentile or a disproportionately low weight-to-height ratio (at or below the tenth percentile) using appropriate norms.

Other factors that influence growth such as parental size, genetic potential and associated conditions (e.g., gestational diabetes, nutritional status, illness) must also be taken into consideration.

Physical features

Characteristic facial features

The three characteristic facial features that differentiate individuals with FAS from those without FASD are:

  • short palpebral fissures, at or below the third percentile (2 standard deviations below the mean)
  • smooth or flattened philtrum, 4 or 5 on the 5-point Likert scale of the lip-philtrum guide
  • thin vermilion border of the upper lip, 4 or 5 on the 5-point Likert scale of the lip-philtrum guide.

Other physical features

Other physical features associated with FASD include:

  • hypoplastic midface
  • micrognathia
  • abnormal position or formation of the ears
  • high arched palate
  • Hypertelorism
  • epicanthic fold
  • limb and palmar crease abnormalities
  • short upturned nose.

These observations should be noted, but they do not contribute to a diagnosis.

Neurobehavioural assessment

The assessment should include:

  • hard and soft neurologic signs (including sensory motor signs)
  • brain structure (occipitofrontal circumference, magnetic resonance imaging, etc.)
  • cognition (IQ)
  • communication: receptive and expressive
  • academic achievement
  • memory
  • executive functioning and abstract reasoning
  • attention deficit/hyperactivity
  • adaptive behaviour, social skills, social communication.

The assessment should include and compare basic and complex tasks in each domain, as appropriate.

Prenatal alcohol exposure confirmation

Confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (i.e., confirmation of alcohol consumption by the mother during the pregnancy) is also required for a FASD diagnosis (with the exception of an FAS diagnosis. This can be obtained through a direct interview with the mother or from other sources, such as reliable clinical observation, reports by a reliable source or medical records.

See the Addiction Toolkit for more about screening for alcohol use.

Validated tools for obtaining maternal alcohol use confirmation include:







Timeline Followback (TLFB).


The Tools for Primary Care Providers (developed by the Developmental Disabilities Primary Care Initiative) include a Health Watch Table–Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). This table includes a checklist of assessment and diagnosis recommendations.

Sign in to comment!
We aren't looking at religion versus science in medicine. We are looking at utilizing episodic proof of analysis and diagnosis appearing at chapel sections information slants that show twenty to thirty year olds going to chapel. This isn't hard.
I would state composed versus organized in one of the diagnostic criteria in the assessment pages which allow to buy cheap essays on Medicine. There's nothing amiss with readiness. Arranged would be in the event that it was accomplished for showy behavior as it were. The inquiries she picked (from a rundown) to ask were vital.
Posted on 14/03/19 6:40 AM.
Posted on 13/05/19 11:37 AM.
Thank you very much for giving this awesome post, it is a great way to fully enjoy it. <a href="https://cmgames.io/">cool math games</a>
Posted on 16/05/19 12:30 AM.
Chaque évaluation et diagnostic est très important pour chaque personne. Maintenant, l’ETCAF est le meilleur diagnostic pour chaque fœtus. <a href="http://fnafgame.net">fnaf</a>
Posted on 27/06/19 12:28 AM.
This was an excellent post. It has some valuable info on this topic. Thank you for compiling it into an easy to read and well written post free gift cards generator and free gift codes generator and free gift card generator and dailymotion video downloader
Posted on 16/07/19 10:51 AM.
congratulations! it's a wonderful thing! I agree with your opinion!
<a href="https://coolmaps.io">map quest</a>
Posted on 25/07/19 12:29 AM.
It is a good and amazing article. Your information is very useful for me and for others. Thank you so much.
hotmail login
Posted on 07/09/19 4:04 AM.
I will have to follow you, the information you bring is very real, reflecting correctly and objectively, it is very useful for society to grow together.happy wheels
Posted on 22/10/19 5:39 AM in reply to ronn91.
All of the information shared by you is unique for me and I was waiting for this for a long time.
<a href="http://www.aliasharma.in/">Independent Escorts Service in Delhi</a>
Posted on 26/10/19 6:34 AM.
All of the information shared by you is unique for me and I was waiting for this for a long time.
Independent Call Girls in Delhi
Posted on 26/10/19 6:44 AM.
I am glad to get that much info from this useful article and I was thinking about this for a long time.
Model Escorts in Delhi
Posted on 26/10/19 6:45 AM.
This is an epic post for me and I appreciate the way you have written this amazing article.
VIP Delhi Escorts
Posted on 26/10/19 6:46 AM.
This topic is very interesting and I am interested but do not know where to find, thankfully you create this topic, hope everyone will help me run 3
Posted on 11/11/19 4:18 AM in reply to aliasharma.
Thank you for your post. This article gives me lots of advice it was very helpful for me! <a href="https://vex4.io">vex 4</a>
Posted on 28/11/19 3:44 AM.
Nice sharing.
<a href="http://www.wellingtontreeservice.com/">land clearing loxahatchee</a>
Posted on 30/11/19 2:59 PM.
Posted on 30/11/19 3:01 PM.
Thanks for writing such a good article, I stumbled onto your blog and read this post. I like your style of writing.
return man 3
Posted on 02/12/19 11:01 PM.
I share this information quite a bit so I thought it would be helpful to me as well to have some of the best pins in one post, Also we are App Development Company Dubai Agency working on Android and IOS for more details visit us!
Posted on 19/12/19 2:20 AM.
Thank you very much for giving this awesome post
<a href="http://www.broward954restoration.com/">fire restoration services fort lauderdale</a>
Posted on 24/12/19 6:43 AM.
Thank you very much for giving this awesome post.
<a href="http://www.royalpalmbeachtreeservice.com/">tree removal royal palm beach</a>
Posted on 26/12/19 3:35 AM.