Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is used to identify behavioural and emotional problems in children and adolescents. It was developed in the U.K. and is used in many countries in clinical and epidemiological contexts.
The instrument produces scores for five subscales:
- conduct problems
- emotional problems
- peer problems
- prosocial behaviour.
Each subscale consists of five items.
Parent and teacher versions are available for those aged 3 to 16 and a youth self-report version is available for youth aged 11 to 16. Extended versions of the parent and teacher SDQ include an impact supplement that asks if the respondent thinks the child or adolescent has a problem with emotions, concentration behaviour or getting along with people. If the answer is yes, the parent/teacher is asked about chronicity, distress, social impairment and burden to others (Goodman, 1999).
Appropriate target populations
Parent and teacher versions are available for those aged 3 to 16 A youth self-report version is available for youth aged 11 to 16.
_X_ self-administered (paper-and-pencil)
___ self-administered (computer)
Designed for self-administration but they can be administered verbally if literacy is too low.
Administration time is approximately 10 minutes.
_X_ Other (Dutch, German, Swedish, Arabic, Urdu, Finnish, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish and Croatian – see website for details.)
Accessibility and cost
_X_ no charge for use
___ use requires permission of test developer
___ use requires special training and/or professional or academic credentials
__ fee for use
Where to access
Summary of test development data
Quality of reporting
High, based on STARD rating (see Appendix, p. 76).
Summary of validity and reliability data
High, based largely on the variety and strength of the reliability and validity data across so many languages and cultural contexts.