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Alcohol/Drug Acknowledgement Scale (ACK), Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness Scale (PRO), MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale – Revised (MAC-R)

From: Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Youth: Screening for Concurrent Substance Use and Mental Health Problems in Youth (© 2009, CAMH)


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Brief description

These three scales are part of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A). Their development is closely related to that of the substance use scales in the adult version, the MMPI.

Adult version

Three substance use scales were developed using items from the MMPI. When the MMPI was revised, producing the MMPI-2, changes were made to the substance use scales. The revised adult scales are:

  • MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R)
  • Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS)
  • Addiction Potential Scale (formerly the Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness Scale).

All three scales use MMPI and MMPI-2 items that are substance abuse-related but, because of the way they are worded, do not appear to the client to be asking about substance use. This use of unobtrusive items was done to minimize "faking."

Adolescent version

The adolescent version of the MMPI (the MMPI-A), has parallel substance use tools.

These are:

  • MacAndrew Scale – Revised (MAC-R)
  • Alcohol/Drug Acknowledgement Scale (ACK)
  • Alcohol/Drug Proneness Scale (PRO).

The three measures are embedded in the MMPI-A and are derived in the compilation and scoring of this much larger battery.

Appropriate target populations

Adolescents from 14 to 18 years old.

Administration options

The MAC-R, ACK and PRO are embedded in the MMPI-A and, therefore, administered as part of the MMPI battery.

Formats available

_X_ self-administered (paper-and-pencil)

_X_ self-administered (computer)

___ clinician-administered

Languages available

_X_ English

___ French

___ Other

Accessibility and cost

___ no charge for use

___ use requires permission of test developer

_X_ use requires special training and/or professional or academic credentials

_X_ fee for use. (Check Pearson Assessment and Information for pricing.)

Where to access

Butcher, J. N., Williams, C. L., Graham, J. R., Archer, R. P., Tellegen, A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Kaemmer, B. (1992). MMPI-A: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-A: A Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Summary of test development data

Quality of reporting

Moderate, based on STARD rating (see Appendix, p.76).

Summary of validity and reliability data

Low, based largely on the limited number of validation studies, marginal performance in the studies identified and poor evidence of reliability.