CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test
The CRAFFT is a six-item measure that was designed for use with adolescent medical patients. It has promise for much wider application. The name CRAFFT is a mnemonic acronym for significant terms in the six questions. It was constructed from items selected from other screening tools (RAFFT, DAP and POSIT) that performed well and had high clinical relevance. Like the RAFFT, it was modelled after the well-known CAGE instrument for adults. It differs from the CAGE in that it that it covers both alcohol and other drugs (much like an adaptation of the CAGE known as the CAGE-AID that is used with adults). All six items are based on lifetime experience, that is "Have you, or do you, ever…"
Appropriate target populations
Adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18. Some validation work has involved.
French-speaking adolescents of a similar age using the French version as well as First Nations people in an American sample.
_X_ self-administered (paper-and-pencil)
_X_ self-administered (computer)
The tool is typically administered verbally. It is, however, amenable to paper and pencil self-administration or computer adaptation.
Accessibility and cost
_X_ no charge for use
___ use requires permission of test developer
___ use requires special training and/or professional or academic credentials
___ fee for use
Where to access
The CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test is reprinted here:
C. Have you ever ridden in a Car driven by someone (including yourself) who was high or had been using alcohol or drugs?
R. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs to Relax, feel better about yourself, or fit in?
A. Do you ever use alcohol or drugs while you are by yourself Alone?
F. Do you ever Forget things you did while using alcohol or drugs?
F. Do your Family or Friends ever tell you that you should cut down on your drinking or drug use?
T. Have you ever gotten into Trouble while you were using alcohol or drugs?
For scoring instructions and more information, see:
Knight, J.R., Sherritt, L., Shrier, L.A., Harris, S.K. & Chang, G. (2002). Validity of the CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test Among Adolescent Clinic Patients. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156, 607–614.
Summary of test development data
Quality of reporting
High, based on STARD rating (see Appendix, p. 76).
Summary of validity and reliability data
High, based on the scope of the validity and reliability testing as well as testing in different populations.