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Psychotherapy: When to refer to a specialist

  • Complicating comorbidity (significant substance use problems, severe personality disorder, complex anxiety disorder such as posttraumatic stress disorder or obsessive compulsive disorder), severe eating disorder
  • Severe presentation (serious suicidality, psychosis, bipolar disorder, especially bipolar I with manic episodes)
  • Refractory to 12–16 sessions of combined treatment with medication and pharmacotherapy
  • Concern about maintaining professional boundaries with the patient

Psychiatry in primary care toolkit

The Psychiatry in Primary Care App has been decommissioned. 

The revised print version of Psychiatry in Primary Care is avaible through the CAMH store. 

We have posted a number of revised chapters from the book in Treating Conditions and Disorders in the new Professionals section of